Democratize Data Science

Every once in a while, I would come across an article that decries online data science courses and boot camps as pathways towards getting a data science job. Most of the articles aim not to discourage but serve as a reminder to take a hard look in the mirror first and realize what we’re up against. However, a few detractors have proclaimed that the proliferation of these online courses and boot camps have caused the degradation of the profession.

To the latter, I vehemently disagree.

Bridging the Skill Gap

Data science have captured popular imagination ever since Harvard Business Review dubbed data scientist as the sexiest job of the 21st century. More than seven years later, data science remains one of the most highly sought-after job markets today. In fact, due to the dynamics of supply and demand, “the United States alone is projected to face a shortfall of some 250,000 data scientists by 2024¹.”

As a result, capitalism and entrepreneurship answered the call and companies like Codeup have vowed to “help bridge the gap between companies and people wanting to enter the field.”²

In addition, AutoML libraries like PyCaret are “democratizing machine learning and the use of advanced analytics by providing free, open-source, and low-code machine learning solution for business analysts, domain experts, citizen data scientists, and experienced data scientists”³.

The availability of online courses, boot camps, and AutoML libraries has led a lot of data scientists to raise their brows. They fear that boot camp alumni and self-taught candidates would somehow lower the overall caliber of data scientists and disgrace the field. Furthermore, they are afraid that the availability of tools like AutoML would allow anyone to be a data scientist.

I mean, God forbid if anyone thinks that they too can be data scientists! Right?

Wrong.

The Street Smart Data Scientist

Alumni of boot camps and self-taught learners, like myself, have one thing going for them: our rookie smarts. To quote Liz Wiseman, author of the book Rookie Smarts:

In a rapidly changing world, experience can be a curse. Being new, naïve, and even clueless can be an asset. — Liz Wiseman

Rookies are unencumbered. We are alert and constantly seeking like hunter-gatherers, cautious but quick like firewalkers, and hungry and relentless like frontiersmen⁴. In other words, we’re street smart.

Many are so bogged down by “you’ve got to learn this” and “you’ve got learn that” that they forget to stress the fact that data science is so vast that you can’t possibly know everything about anything. And that’s okay.

We learn fast and adapt quickly.

At the end of the day, it’s all about the value that we bring to our organizations. They are, after all, the ones paying our bills. We don’t get paid to memorize formulas or by knowing how to code an algorithm from scratch.

We get paid to solve problems.

And this is where the street smart data scientist excels. We don’t suffer from analysis paralysis or be bothered with theories, at least not while on the clock. Our center of focus is based on pragmatic solutions to problems, not on academic debate.

This is not to say we’re not interested in the latest research. In fact, it’s quite the contrary. We are voracious consumers of the latest development in machine learning and AI. We drool over the latest development in natural language processing. And we’re always on the lookout for the latest tool that will make our jobs easier and less boring.

And AutoML

So what if we have to use AutoML? If it gets us to an automatic pipeline where analysts can get the results of machine learning without manual intervention by a data scientist, the better. We’re not threatened by automation, we’re exhilarated by it!

Do not let perfection be the enemy of progress. — Winston Churchill

By building an automatic pipeline, there’s bound to be some tradeoffs. But building it this way will free our brain cells and gives us more time to focus on solving other higher-level problems and produce more impactful solutions.

We’re not concerned about job security, because we know that it doesn’t exist. What we do know is that the more value we bring to a business, the better we will be in the long run.

Maybe They’re Right?

After all this, I will concede a bit. For the sake of argument, maybe they’re right. Maybe online courses, boot camps, and low-code machine learning libraries really do produce low-caliber data scientists.

Big maybe.

But still, I argue, this doesn’t mean we don’t have value. Data science skills lie on a spectrum and so does companies’ maturity when it comes to data. Why hire a six-figure employee when your organization barely has a recognizable machine learning infrastructure?

Again, maybe.

The Unicorn

Maybe, to be labeled as a data scientist, one must be a unicorn first. A unicorn data scientist is a data scientist who excels at all facets of data science.

Image for post
Hckum / CC BY-SA (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)

Data science has long been described as the intersection between computer science, applied statistics, and business or domain knowledge. To this, they ask, how can one person possibly accumulate all those knowledge into just a few months? To this, we also ask the same question, how can a college grad?

Unicorns do exist I believe, but they also have had to start from somewhere.

So why can’t we?

Conclusion

A whole slew of online courses and tools promise to democratize data science, and this is a good thing.

Thank you for reading. If you want to learn more about my journey from slacker to data scientist, check out the article From Slacker to Data Scientist: My journey into data science without a degree.

And if you’re thinking about switching gears and venture into data science, start thinking about rebranding now The Slacker’s Guide to Rebranding Yourself as a Data ScientistOpinionated advice for the rest of us. Love of math, optional.

Stay tuned!

You can reach me on Twitter or LinkedIn.

[1] Harvard Business Review. (June 3, 2020). Democratizing Data Science in Your Organization. https://hbr.org/sponsored/2019/04/democratizing-data-science-in-your-organization

[2] San Antonio Express-News. (June 3, 2020). Software development bootcamp Codeup launching new data science program. https://www.mysanantonio.com/business/technology/article/Software-development-bootcamp-Codeup-launching-13271597.php

[3] Towards Data Science. (June 4, 2020). Machine Learning in Power BI Using PyCaret. https://towardsdatascience.com/machine-learning-in-power-bi-using-pycaret-34307f09394a

[4] The Wiseman Group. (June 4, 2020). Rookie Smarts
Why Learning Beats Knowing in the New Game of Work. 
https://thewisemangroup.com/books/rookie-smarts/

This article was first published in Towards Data Science’ Medium publication.

The Slacker’s Guide to Rebranding Yourself as a Data Scientist

Opinionated advice for the rest of us. Love of math, optional.


Since my article about my journey to data science, I’ve had a lot of people ask me for advice regarding their own journey towards becoming a data scientist. A common theme started to emerge: aspiring data scientists are confused about how to start, and some are drowning because of the overwhelming amount of information available in the wild. So, what’s another, right?

Well, let’s see.

I urge aspiring data scientists to slow it down a bit and take a step back. Before we get to learning, let’s take care of some business first: the fine art of reinventing yourself. Reinventing yourself takes time, so we better get started early on in the game.

In this post, I will share a very opinionated approach to do-it-yourself rebranding as a data scientist. I will assume three things about you:

  • You’re broke, but you’ve got grit.
  • You’re willing to sacrifice and learn.
  • You’ve made a conscious decision to become a data scientist.

Let’s get started!


First Things First

I’m a strong believer in Yoda’s wisdom: “Do or do not, there is no try.” For me, either you do something or you don’t. Failure for me was not an option, and I took comfort in knowing that I won’t really fail unless I quit entirely. So first bit of advice: don’t quit. Ever.

Do or do not, there is no try.

Yoda

Begin with the End in Mind

Let’s get our online affairs in order and start thinking about SEO. SEO stands for search engine optimization. The simplest way to think about is the very fine art of putting as much “stuff” as you can on the internet with your real professional name out there so that when somebody searches for you, all they will find are the stuff that you want them to find.

In our case, we want the words “data science” or “data scientist” to appear whenever your name appears in the search results.

So let’s start littering the interweb!

  1. Create a professional Gmail account if you don’t already have one. Don’t make your username be sexxydatascientist007@gmail.com. Play it safe, the more boring, the better. Start with first.last@gmail.com, or if your name is a common one, append it with “data” like first.name.data@gmail.com. Avoid numbers at all costs. If you have one already, but it doesn’t follow the aforementioned guidelines, create another one!
  2. Create a LinkedIn account and use your professional email address. Put “Data Scientist in Training” in the headline. “Data Science Enthusiast” is too weak. We’ve made a conscious decision and committed to the mission, remember? While we’re at it, let’s put the app on our phone too.
  3. If you don’t have a Facebook account yet, create one just so you could claim your name. If you already have one, put that thing on private pronto! Go the extra mile and also delete the app on your phone so you won’t get distracted. Do the same for other social networks like Twitter, Instagram, and Pinterest. Set them to private for now, we’ll worry about cleaning them up later.
  4. Create a Twitter account if you don’t already have one. We can take a little bit of leeway in the username. Make it short and memorable but still professional, so you don’t offend anybody’s sensibilities. If you already have one, decide if you want to keep it or start all over. The main thing to ask yourself: is there any content in your history that can be construed as unprofessional or mildly controversial? Err on the side of caution.
  5. Start following the top voices in data science on LinkedIn and Twitter. Here are a few suggestions: Cassie Kozyrkov, Angela Baltes, Sarah N., Kate Strachnyi, Kristen Kehrer, Favio Vazquez, and of course, my all-time favorite: Eric Weber.
  6. Create a Hootsuite account and connect your LinkedIn and Twitter accounts. Start scheduling data science-related posts. You can share interesting articles from other people about data science or post about your own data science adventures! If you do share other people’s posts, please make sure you give the appropriate credit. Simply adding a URL is lazy and no bueno. Thanks to Eric Weber for this pro-tip!
  7. Take a professional picture and put it as your profile picture in all of your social media accounts. Aim for a neutral background, if possible. Make sure it’s only you in the picture unless you’re Eric (he’s earned his chops so don’t question him! LOL.)
  8. Create a Github account if you don’t have one already. You’re going to need this as you start doing data science projects.
  9. BONUS: if you can spare a few dollars, go to wordpress.org and get yourself a domain that has your professional name on it. I was fortunate enough to have an uncommon name, so I have ednalyn.com, but if your name is common, be creative and make one up that’s recognizably yours. Maybe something like janesmithdoesdatascience.com. Then you can start planning on having your resumé online or maybe even have a blog post or two about data science. As for me, I started with writing my experience when I first started to learn data science.
  10. Clean-up: when time permits, start auditing your social media posts for offensive, scandalous, or unflattering content. If you’re looking to save time, try a service like brandyourself.com. Warning! It can get expensive, so watch where you click.

Do Your Chores

No kidding! When you’re doing household chores, taking a walk, or maybe even while driving, listen to podcasts that talk about data science topics like Linear Digression and TwiML. Don’t get too bogged down about committing what they say to memory. Just go along with the flow, and sooner or later, the terminology and concepts that they discuss will start to sound familiar. Just remember not to get too caught up with the discussions that you start burning whatever you’re cooking or miss your exit like I have many times in the past.

Meat and Potatoes

Now that we’ve taken care of the preliminaries of living and breathing data science, it’s time to take care of the meat and potatoes: actually learning about data science.

There’s no shortage of opinions about how to learn data science. There are so many of them that it can overwhelm you, especially when they start talking about learning the foundational math and statistics first.

Blah!

Tell me and I forget,
teach me and I remember,
involve me and I learn.

Old Chinese Adage

While important, I don’t see the point of studying theory first when I may soon fall asleep or worst, get too intimidated by the onslaught of mathematical formulas that I get so exasperated, and ended up quitting!

What I humbly propose, rather, is to employ the idea of “minimum viable knowledge” or MVK as described by Ken Jee. in his article: How I Would Learn Data Science (If I Had to Start Over). Ken Jee describes minimum viable knowledge as learning “just enough to be able to learn through doing.”² I suggest checking it out:

My approach to MVK is pretty straight-forward: learn just enough SQL to be able to get the data from a database, learn enough Python so that you could have program control and be able to use the pandas library, and then do end-to-end projects, from simple ones to increasingly more challenging ones. Along the way, you’d learn about data wrangling, exploratory data analysis, and modeling. Other techniques like cross-validation and grid search would surely be a part of your journey as well. The trick is never to get too comfortable and always push yourself slowly.

To the list-oriented, here is my process:

  1. Learn enough SQL and Python to be able to do end-to-end projects with increasing complexity.
  2. For each project, go through the steps of the data science pipeline: planning, acquisition, preparation, exploration, modeling, delivery (story-telling/presentation). Be sure to document your efforts on your Github account.
  3. Rinse and repeat (iterate).

For a more in-depth discussion of the data science pipeline, I recommend the following article: PAPEM-DM: & Steps Towards a Data Science Win.

For each iteration, I suggest doing an end-to-end project that practices each of these following data science methodologies:

  • regression
  • classification
  • clustering
  • time-series analysis
  • anomaly detection
  • natural language processing
  • distributed ML
  • deep learning

And for each methodology, practice its different algorithms, models, or techniques. For example, for natural language processing, you might want to practice these following techniques:

  • n-gram ranking
  • named-entity recognition
  • sentiment analysis
  • topic modeling
  • text classification

Just Push It

As you do end-to-end projects, it’s a good practice to push your work publicly on Github. Not only will it track your progress, but it also backups your work in case your local machine breaks down. Not to mention, it’s a great way to showcase your progress. Note that I said progress, not perfection. Generally, people understand if our Github repositories are a little bit messy. In fact, most expect it. At a minimum, just make sure that you have a great README.md file for each repo.

What to put on a Github Repo README.md:

  • Project name
  • What goal or purpose of the project
  • Background on the project
  • How to use the project (if somebody wants to try it for themselves)
  • Mention your keywords: “data science,” “data scientist,” “machine learning,” et cetera.

Don’t ignore this note: don’t make the big mistake or hard-coding your credentials or any passwords in your public code. Put them in an .env file and .gitignore them. For reference, check out this documentation from Github.

For a great in-depth tutorial on how to use Git and Github, check out
Anne Bonner’s guide: Getting Started with Git and Github: the complete beginner’s guide.

For the Love of Math

And finally, as you get better with employing different techniques and you begin to do hyper-parameter tuning, I believe at this point that you’re ready to face the necessary evil that is math. And more than likely, the more you understand and develop intuition, the less you’ll hate it. And maybe, just maybe, you’ll even grow to love it.

I have one general recommendation when it comes to learning the math behind data science: take it slow. Be gentle on yourself and don’t set deadlines. Again, there’s no sense in being ambitious and tackling something monumental if it ends up driving you insane. There’s just no fun in it.

There are generally two approaches to learning math.

One is to take the structured approach, which starts on learning the basics first and then incrementally take on the more challenging parts. For this I recommend KhanAcademy. Personalize your learning towards calculus, linear algebra, and statistics. Take small steps and celebrate small wins.

The other approach is slightly geared for more hands-on involvement and takes a little bit of reverse engineering. I call it learning backward. You start with finding out what math concept is involved in a project and breaking down that concept into more basic ideas and go from there. This approach is better suited for those who prefer to learn by doing.

A good example of learning by doing is illustrated by a post on Analytics Vidhya.

Supplemented by this article.

Take a Break

Well, learning math sure is hard! It’s so powerful and intense that you’d better take a break often or risk overheating your brain. On the other hand, taking a break does not necessarily mean taking a day off. After all, there is no rest for the weary!
Every once in a while, I strongly recommend supplementing your technical studies with a little bit of understanding of the business side of things. For this, I suggest the classic book: Thinking with Data by Max Shron. You can also find a lot of articles here on Medium.

For example, check out Eric Kleppen’s article.

Talk to People

Taking a break can be lonely sometimes, and being alone with only your thoughts can be exhausting. So you may decide to finally talk with your family, the problem is, you’re so motivated and gung-ho about data science that it’s all you can talk about. Sooner or later, you’re going to annoy your loved ones.

It happened to me.

This is why I decided to talk to other people with similar interests. I went on Meetups and started networking with people who are either already practicing data science or people like you who are aspiring to be a data scientist as well. In this post-COVID (hopefully) age that we’re in, having group video calls are more prevalent. This is actually more beneficial because now, geography won’t be an issue anymore.

A good resource to start is LinkedIn. You can use the social network to find others with similar interests or even find local data scientists who can still spare an hour or two every month to mentor motivated learners. Start with companies in your local municipality. Find out if they have a data scientist that works there, and if you do find one, kindly send them a personalized message with a request to connect. Give them the option to refuse gracefully and just ask them to repoint or recommend you to another person who does have the time to mentor.

The worst that can happen is they said no. No hard feelings, eh?

Conclusion

Thanks for reading! This concludes my very opinionated advice on rebranding yourself as a data scientist. I hope you got something out of it. I welcome any feedback. If you have something you’d like to add, please post it in the comments or responses.

Let’s continue this discussion!


If you’d like to connect with me, you can reach me on Twitter or LinkedIn. I love to connect, and I do my best to respond to inquiries as they come.

Stay tuned, and see you in the next post!

If you want to learn more about my journey from slacker to data scientist, check out this article.


[1] Quote Investigator. (June 10, 2020). Tell Me and I Forget; Teach Me and I May Remember; Involve Me and I Learn. https://quoteinvestigator.com/2019/02/27/tell/

[2] Towards Data Science. (June 11, 2020). How I Would Learn Data Science (If I Had to Start Over). https://towardsdatascience.com/how-i-would-learn-data-science-if-i-had-to-start-over-f3bf0d27ca87

This article was first published in Towards Data Science’ Medium publication.

From Slacker to Data Scientist

My journey into data science without a degree.


Butterflies in my belly; my stomach is tied up in knots. I know I’m taking a risk by sharing my story, but I wanted to reach out to others aspiring to be a data scientist. I am writing this with hopes that my story will encourage and motivate you. At the very least, hopefully, your journey won’t be as long as mine.

So, full speed ahead.


I don’t have a PhD. Heck, I don’t even have any degree to speak of. Still, I am very fortunate enough to work as a data scientist in a ridiculously good company.

How I did it? Hint: I had a lot of help.

Never Let Schooling Interfere With Your Education — Grant Allen

Formative Years

It was 1995 and I had just gotten my very first computer. It was a 1982 Apple IIe. It didn’t come with any software but it came with a manual. That’s how I learned my very first computer language: Apple BASIC.

My love for programming was born.

In Algebra class, I remember learning about the quadratic equation. I had a cheap graphic calculator then, a Casio, that’s about half the price of a TI-82. It came with a manual too so I decided to write a program that will solve the quadratic equation for me without much hassle.

My love for solving problems was born.

In my senior year, my parents didn’t know anything about financial aid but I was determined to go to college so I decided to join the Navy so that I could use MGIB pay for my college. After all, four years of service didn’t seem that long.

My love for adventure was born.

Later in my career in the Navy, I was promoted as the ship’s financial manager. I was in charge of managing multiple budgets. The experience taught me bookkeeping.

My love for numbers was born.

After the Navy, I ended volunteering for a non-profit. They eventually recruited me to start a domestic violence crisis program from scratch. I had no social work experience but I agreed anyway.

My love for saying “Why not?” was born.

Rock Bottom

After a few successful years, my boss retired and the new boss fired me. I was devastated. I fell into a deep state of clinical depression and I felt worthless.

I recall crying very loudly in the kitchen table. It has been more than a year since my non-profit job and I’m nowhere near close as having a prospect for the next one. I was in a very dark space.

Thankfully, the crying fit was a cathartic experience. It gave me a jolt to do some introspection, stop whining, and come up with a plan.

“Choose a Job You Love, and You Will Never Have To Work a Day in Your Life. “ — Anonymous

Falling in Love, All Over Again

To pay the bills, I’ve been working as a freelance web designer/developer but I wasn’t happy. Frankly, the business of doing web design bored me. It was frustrating working with clients who think and act like they’re the expert on design.

So I started thinking, “what’s next?”.

Searching the web, I’ve stumbled upon the latest news in artificial intelligence. It led me to machine learning which in turn led me to the subject of data science.

I was infatuated.

I signed up for Andrew Ng’s machine learning course on Coursera. I listened to TwitML, Linear Digression, and a few other podcasts. I revisited Python and got reacquainted with git on Github.

I was in love.

It was at this time that I made the conscious decision to be a data scientist.

Leap of Faith

Learning something new was fun for me. But still, I had that voice in my head telling me that no matter how much I study and learn, I will never get a job because I don’t have a degree.

So, I took a hard look at the mirror and acknowledge that I need help. The question now is where to start looking.

Then one day out of the blue, my girlfriend asked me what data science is. I jumped off my feet and starting explaining right away. Once I stopped explaining to catch a breath, I managed to ask her why she asked. And that’s when she told me that she’d seen a sign on the billboard. We went for a drive and saw the sign for myself. It was a curious billboard with two big words “data science” and a smaller one that says “Codeup.” I went to their website and researched their employment outcome.

I was sold.

Preparation

Before the start of the class, we were given a list of materials to go over.

Given that I had only about two months to prepare, I was not expected to finish the courses. I was basically told to just skim over the content. Well, I did them anyway. I spent day and night going over the courses and materials. Did the tests, got the certificates!

Bootcamp

Boot camp was a blur. We had a saying in the Navy about the boot camp experience: “the days drag on but the weeks fly by.” This was definitely true for the Codeup boot camp as well.

Codeup is described as a “fully-immersive, project-based 18-week Data Science career accelerator that provides students with 600+hours of expert instruction in applied data science. Students develop expertise across the full data science pipeline (planning, acquisition, preparation, exploration, modeling, delivery), and become comfortable working with real, messy data to deliver actionable insights to diverse stakeholders.”¹

We were coding in Python, querying the SQL database, and making dashboards in Tableau. We did projects after projects. We learned about different methodologies like regression, classification, clustering, time-series, anomaly detection, natural language processing, and distributed machine learning.

More importantly, the experience taught us the following:

  1. Real data is messy; deal with it.
  2. If you can’t communicate with your stakeholders, you’re useless.
  3. Document your code.
  4. Read the documentation.
  5. Always be learning.

Job Hunting

Our job hunting process started from day one of boot camp. We updated our LinkedIn profile and made sure that we’re pushing to Github almost every day. I even spruced up my personal website to include the projects we’ve done during class. And of course, we made sure that our resumé is in good shape.

Codeup helped me with all of these.

In addition, Codeup also helped prepare us for both technical and behavioral interviews. We practiced answering questions following the S.T.A.R. format (Situation, Task, Action, Result). We optimized our answers to highlight our strengths as high-potential candidates.

Post-Graduation

My education continued even after graduation. In between filling out applications, I would code every day and try out different Python libraries. I regularly read the news for the latest development in machine learning. While doing chores, I listen to a podcast, a TedTalk, or a LinkedIn learning video. When bored, I listened to or read books.

There’s a lot of good technical books out there to read. But for the non-technical ones, I recommend the following:

  • Thinking with Data by Max Shron
  • Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy by Cathy O’Neill
  • Invisible Women: Data Bias in a World Designed for Men by Caroline Criado Perez
  • Rookie Smarts: Why Learning Beats Knowing in the New Game of Work by Liz Wiseman
  • Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance by Angela Duckworth
  • The First 90 Days: Proven Strategies for Getting Up to Speed Faster and Smarter by Michael Watkins

Dealing with Rejection

I’ve had a lot of rejections. The first one was the hardest but after that, it kept getting easier. I developed a thick skin and just moved on.

Rejection sucks. Try not to take it personally. Nobody likes to fail, but it will happen. When it does, fail up.

Conclusion

It took me 3 months after graduating from boot camp to get a job. It took a lot of sacrifices. When I finally got the job offer, I felt very grateful, relieved, and excited.

I could not have done it without Codeup and my family’s support.


Thanks for reading! I hope you got something out of this post.

To all aspiring data scientists out there, just don’t give up. Try not to listen to all the haters out there. If you must, hear what they have to say, take stock of your weaknesses, and aspire to learn better than yesterday. But never ever let them discourage you. Remember, data science skills lie on a spectrum. If you’ve got the passion and perseverance, I’m pretty sure that there’s a company or organization out there that’s just the right fit for you.

Stay tuned!

You can reach me on Twitter or LinkedIn.

[1] Codeup Alumni Portal. (May 31, 2020). Resumé — Ednalyn C. De Dioshttps://alumni.codeup.com/uploads/699-1562875657.pdf

This article was first published in Towards Data Science‘ Medium publication.

Grateful

I was writing about my journey from slacker to data scientist and I was reminded of just how fortunate I am because I had a lot of help along the way.

  • I am blessed to be working in the field of data science.
  • I am blessed to be employed a ridiculously good company.
  • I am blessed to still have a job amidst the COVID-19 crisis.

And most importantly, I truly am very fortunate to have family and friends– both professional and personal– that help me get to where I am now.

Today, I created a Kiva Team “Data Scientists for Good” with hopes of encouraging other data scientists, data analysts, and data engineers to give back. Click here if you’re interested in joining the team.

So, what are you grateful for?

Highlights- The First 90 Days: Chapter 1, Prepare Yourself

Michael Watkins

It’s a mistake to believe that you will be successful in your new job by continuing to do what you did in your previous job, only more so.

Preparing yourself means letting go of the past and embracing the imperatives of the new situation to give yourself a running start.

Getting Promoted

You must figure out what it takes to be excellent in the new role, how to exceed the expectations of those who promoted you, and how to position yourself for still greater things.

Balance Between Breadth and Depth

You also need to learn to strike the right between keeping the wide view and drilling down into the details.

Rethink What You Delegate

… the keys to effective delegation remain much the same; you build a team of competent people whom you trust, you establish goals and metrics and monitor their progress, you translate higher-level goals into specific responsibilities for your direct reports, and you reinforce them through the process.

When you get promoted, however, what you delegate usually needs to change… it may make sense to delegate specific tasks… your focus may shift from tasks to projects and processes… entire businesses.

Influence Differently

… the decision-making game becomes much more bruising and politically charged the higher up you go. It’s critical, then, for you to become more effective at building and sustaining alliances.

Communicate More Formally

Establish new communication channels to stay connected with what is happening where the action is… all without undermining the integrity of the chain of command.

Your direct reports play a greater role in communicating your vision and ensuring the spread of critical information.

Exhibit the Right Presence

What does a leader look like at your new level in the hierarchy? How does he act? What kind of personal leadership brand do you want to have in the new role? How will you make it your own?

Four Pillars of Effective Onboarding

Business Orientation

Getting oriented to the business means learning about the company as a whole and not only your specific parts of the business. It’s beneficial to learn about the brands and products you will be supporting, whether or not you’re directly involved in sales and marketing.

Stakeholder Connection

It’s also essential to develop the right relationship wiring as soon as possible. This means identifying key stakeholders and building productive working relationships. Remember: you don’t want to be meeting your neighbors for the first time in the middle of the night when your house is burning down.

Expectations Alignment

Check and recheck expectations.

Cultural Adaptation

Think of yourself as an anthropologist sent to study a newly discovered civilization.

Identifying Cultural Norms

Influence

How do people get support? Is it more important to have support of a patron within the senior team or affirmation from peers and direct reports?

Meetings

Are meetings filled with dialogue on hard issues or are they simply forums for publicly ratifying agreements that have been reached in private?

Execution

Which matters more- a deep understanding of processes or knowing the right people?

Conflict

Can people talk openly about difficult issues without fear or retribution?

Recognition

Does the company promote stars or does it encourage team players?

Ends Versus Means

Are there any restrictions on how you achieve results? Does the organization have a well-defined, well-communicated set of values that is reinforced through positive and negative incentives?

Preparing Yourself

Take time to celebrate your move, even informally, with family and friends. Touch base with your informal advisers and counselors and to ask for advice.

Assess Your Vulnerabilities

One way to pinpoint your vulnerabilities is to assess the kinds of problems toward which you naturally gravitate.

Watch Out for Your Strengths

“To a person with a hammer, everything looks like a nail.”

Relearn How to Learn

New challenges and associated fears of incompetence can set up a vicious cycle of denial and defensiveness. Put bluntly, you can decide to learn and adapt, or you can become brittle and fail.

Relearning how to learn can be stressful… if you embrace the need to learn, you can surmount them.

Get Some Help

Engage with HR and your new boss about creating a 90-day transition plan. Ask for help in identifying and connecting with key stakeholders or finding a cultural interpreter.

Closing the Loop

You have to work constantly to ensure that you’re engaging with the real challenges of your new position and not retreating to your comfort zone.

Highlights- The First 90 Days: Introduction

Michael Watkins

The actions you take during your first few months in a new role will largely determine whether you succeed or fail.

“Success or failure during the first few months is a strong predictor of overall success or failure in the job.”

If you’re successful in building credibility and securing early wins, the momentum likely will propel you through the rest of your tenure.

The most dangerous transition can be the one you don’t recognize is happening.

Leaders also are impacted by the transitions of many others around them.

Your goal in every transition is to get as rapidly as possible to the break-even point. This is the point at which you have contributed as much value to your new organization as you have consumed from it.

The goal is the same: to get there as quickly as possible.

Avoiding Transition Traps

  • Sticking with what you know
  • Falling prey to the “action imperative”
  • Setting unrealistic expectations
  • Attempting to do too much
  • Coming in with “the” answer
  • Engaging in the wrong type of learning
  • Neglecting horizontal relationships

Understanding the Fundamental Principles

  • Prepare yourself
  • Accelerate learning
  • Match your strategy to the situation
  • Secure early wins
  • Negotiate success
  • Achieve alignment
  • Build your team
  • Create coalitions
  • Keep your balance
  • Accelerate everyone

Mapping Out Your First 90 Days

Your transition begins the moment you learn you are being considered for a new job.

Use the 90-day period as a planning horizon.

Start planning what you hope to accomplish by specific milestones.

Begin by thinking about your first day in the new job. What do you want to do by the end of that day? Then move to the first week. Then focus on the end of the first month, the second month, and finally the three-month mark.

Hitting the Ground Running

Every new leader needs to quickly become familiar with the new organization, secure early wins, and build supportive coalitions.